Canada Listeni/ˈkænədə/ is a country in North America consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. At 9.98 million square kilometres in total, Canada is the world’ssecond-largest country by total area and the fourth-largest country by land area. Its common border with the United States forms the world’s longestland border.

The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by variousAboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonies were established on the region’s Atlantic coast. As a consequence of various conflicts, the United Kingdom gained and lost North American territories until left, in the late 18th century, with what mostly comprises Canada today. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1, 1867 three colonies joined to form the autonomous federal dominion of Canada. This began an accretion of provinces and territories to the new self-governing dominion. In 1931, Britain granted Canada full independence in most matters with the Statute of Westminster 1931. The Canada Act 1982severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament.

Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. Canada is a member of theCommonwealth of Nations. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world’s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries, with a population of approximately 35 million as of December 2012. Its advanced economy is one of the largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed trade networks. Canada’s long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture.

Canada is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the eighth highest per capita income globally, and the eighth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, and education, and stands among the world’s most educated countries- ranking first worldwide in the number of adults having tertiary education with 51% of adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university degree (according to the OECD 2012 survey).[10] Canada’s participation in economic international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings includes the G8 (Group of Eight); the Group of Ten (economic); the Group of Twenty (G-20 major economies); the North American Free Trade Agreement; and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. Canada’s alliances include the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).


Main article: Name of Canada

The name Canada comes from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning “village” or “settlement”.[11] In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorerJacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona.[12] Cartier later used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village, but the entire area subject to Donnacona (the chief at Stadacona); by 1545, European books and maps had begun referring to this region as Canada.[12]

In the 17th and early 18th centuries, “Canada” referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. To punish the resistance of the Thirteen Colonies, Canada’s territory was vastly expanded by the British in the 1774 Quebec Act to include unsettled territory in the Great Lakes region down to the Ohio river. Part of this arbitrarily added territory was turned over to the new United States in 1783, but all land north of the Great Lakes (making up much of modern Ontario) was retained by British Canada. In 1791 the British designated this region Upper Canada and the traditional French-speaking portion Lower Canada, they were reunified as the Province of Canada in 1841.[13]

Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country, and the word Dominion was conferred as the country’s title.[14] However, as Canada asserted its political autonomy from the United Kingdom, the federal government increasingly used simply Canada on state documents and treaties, a change that was reflected in the renaming of the national holiday from Dominion Day to Canada Day in 1982.[15]


Main article: History of Canada
Further information: List of years in Canada

Aboriginal peoples

Archaeological studies and genetic analyses have indicated a human presence in the northern Yukon region from 24,500 BC, and in southern Ontario from 7500 BC.[16][17][18] These first settlers entered Canada through Beringia by way of theBering land bridge.[19] The Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada.[20] The characteristics of Canadian Aboriginal societies included permanent settlements, agriculture, complex societal hierarchies, and trading networks.[21][22] Some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.[23]

The aboriginal population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000[24] and two million,[25] with a figure of 500,000 accepted by Canada’s Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples.[26] As a consequence of the European colonization, Canada’s aboriginal peoples suffered from repeated outbreaks of newly introduced infectious diseases such as influenzameasles, and smallpox (to which they had no natural immunity), resulting in a forty to eighty percent population decrease in the centuries after the European arrival.[24] Aboriginal peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations,[27] Inuit,[28] and Métis.[29] The Métis are a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers.[30] In general, the Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during the colonization period.[31]

European colonization

Benjamin West‘s The Death of General Wolfe (1771) dramatizesJames Wolfe‘s death during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec in 1759.

The first known attempt at European colonization began when Norsemen settled briefly at L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland around 1000 AD.[32] No further European exploration occurred until 1497, when Italian seafarer John Cabotexplored Canada’s Atlantic coast for England.[33] Basque and Portuguese mariners established seasonal whaling and fishing outposts along the Atlantic coast in the early 16th century.[34] In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River, where on July 24 he planted a 10-metre (33 ft) cross bearing the words “Long Live the King of France”, and took possession of the territory in the name of King Francis I.[35]

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed St. John’s, Newfoundland, as the first North American English colony by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I.[36] French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603, and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608.[37] Among the French colonists of New FranceCanadiens extensively settled the St. Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the present-day Maritimes, while fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and theMississippi watershed to Louisiana. The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th century over control of the North American fur trade.[38]

Map of British America showing original boundaries of Quebec/Canada and its annexation of territories, including modernOntario, following the Quebec Act of 1774.

The English established additional colonies in Cupidsand FerrylandNewfoundland, beginning in 1610.[39]The Thirteen Colonies to the south were founded soon after.[34] A series of four wars erupted in colonial North America between 1689 and 1763; the later wars of the period constituted the North American theatre of theSeven Years’ War.[40] Mainland Nova Scotia came under British rule with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht; theTreaty of Paris (1763) ceded Canada and most of New France to Britain after the Seven Years’ War.[41]

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annexed Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia.[15] St. John’s Island (nowPrince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769.[42] To avert conflict in Quebec, the British passed the Quebec Act of 1774, expanding Quebec’s territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley. It re-established the French language, Catholic faith, and French civil law there. This angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the 1775 outbreak of the American Revolution.[15]

The 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized American independence and ceded the newly added territories south (but not north) of the Great Lakes to the new United States.[43] New Brunswick was split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes. To accommodate English-speaking Loyalists in Quebec, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (laterOntario), granting each its own elected legislative assembly.[44]

Robert Harris‘s Fathers of Confederation (1884), an amalgamation of the Charlottetown andQuebec conferences of 1864.[45]

The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and Britain. Following the war, large-scale immigration to Canada from Britain and Ireland began in 1815.[25] Between 1825 and 1846, 626,628 European immigrants reportedly landed at Canadian ports.[46] These included Irish immigrants escaping the Great Irish Famine as well as Gaelic-speaking Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances.[47] Infectious diseases killed between 25 and 33 per cent of Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891.[24]

The desire for responsible government resulted in the abortive Rebellions of 1837. The Durham Report subsequently recommended responsible government and the assimilation of French Canadians into English culture.[15] The Act of Union 1840merged the Canadas into a united Province of Canada. Responsible government was established for all British North American provinces by 1849.[48] The signing of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary dispute, extending the border westward along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for British colonies on Vancouver Island (1849) and in British Columbia (1858).[49]

Confederation and expansion

refer to caption

An animated map showing the growth and change of Canada’s provinces and territories since Confederation in 1867

Following several constitutional conferences, the 1867 Constitution Act officially proclaimed Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces:Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick.[50][51] Canada assumed control ofRupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis’ grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the creation of the province of Manitoba in July 1870.[52] British Columbia and Vancouver Island (whichhad been united in 1866) joined the Confederation in 1871, while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873.[53]

Prime Minister John A. Macdonald and his Conservative government established aNational Policy of tariffs to protect the nascent Canadian manufacturing industries.[51]To open the West, the government sponsored the construction of three transcontinental railways (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), opened the prairies to settlement with the Dominion Lands Act, and established the North-West Mounted Police to assert its authority over this territory.[54][55] In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, the Canadian government created the Yukon Territory. Under the Liberal Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, continental European immigrants settled the prairies, and Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905.[53]

Early 20th century

Group of armed soldiers march past a wrecked tank and a body

Canadian soldiers and a Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge in 1917

Because Britain still maintained control of Canada’s foreign affairs under the Confederation Act, its declaration of war in 1914 automatically brought Canada into World War I. Volunteers sent to the Western Front later became part of theCanadian Corps. The Corps played a substantial role in the Battle of Vimy Ridgeand other major engagements of the war.[56] Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World War I, around 60,000 were killed and another 173,000 were wounded.[57] The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military serviceover the vehement objections of French-speaking Quebecers. The Conscription Crisis, coupled with disputes over French language schools outside Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party. Borden’s Unionist government included many Anglophone Liberals, and it swept to a landslide victory in the 1917 elections. In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain,[56] the 1931 Statute of Westminster affirmed Canada’s independence.[3]

Montreal Daily Star announces the end of World War II. May 7, 1945

The great depression in Canada during the early 1930s saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the country.[58] In response to the downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Saskatchewan introduced many elements of a welfare state (as pioneered by Tommy Douglas) in the 1940s and 1950s.[59] Canada declared war on Germany independently during World War II under Liberal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, seven days after Britain. The first Canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939.[56]

Canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the failed 1942 Dieppe Raid, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, theBattle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944.[56] Canada provided asylum for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied, and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany.[60] The Canadian economy boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union.[56] Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy.[61]

Modern times

At Rideau HallGovernor Generalthe Viscount Alexander of Tunis(centre) receives the bill finalizing the union of Newfoundland and Canada on March 31, 1949

The financial crisis of the great depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundlandto relinquish responsible government in 1934 and become a crown colony ruled by a British governor. After two bitter referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province.[62]

Canada’s post-war economic growth, combined with the policies of successive Liberal governments, led to the emergence of a new Canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the current Maple Leaf Flag in 1965,[63] the implementation ofofficial bilingualism (English and French) in 1969,[64] and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971.[65] Socially democratic programs were also instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though provincial governments, particularly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions.[66]

Finally, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the 1982 patriationof Canada’s constitution from the United Kingdom, concurrent with the creation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[67] In 1999, Nunavut became Canada’s third territory after a series of negotiations with the federal government.[68]

At the same time, Quebec underwent profound social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a modern nationalist movement. The radical Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) ignited the October Crisiswith a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970,[69] and the sovereignist Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an unsuccessful referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990.[70] This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the invigoration of the Reform Party of Canada in the West.[71][72] A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slimmer margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percent. In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled thatunilateral secession by a province would be unconstitutional, and the Clarity Act was passed by parliament, outlining the terms of a negotiated departure from Confederation.[70]

In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a number of crises shook Canadian society in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in Canadian history;[73] theÉcole Polytechnique massacre in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students;[74] and the Oka Crisis of 1990,[75]the first of a number of violent confrontations between the government and Aboriginal groups.[76] Canada also joined theGulf War in 1990 as part of a US-led coalition force, and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia.[77][78] Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001, but declined to join the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003.[79] In 2009, Canada’s economy suffered in the worldwide Great Recession, but it has since rebounded modestly.[80] In 2011, Canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan civil war.[81]


Main article: Geography of Canada

Canada occupies a major northern portion of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south (the longest border between two countries in the world) and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean.[82]Greenland is to the northeast, while Saint Pierre and Miquelon is south of Newfoundland. By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, Canada ranks fourth.[82] The country lies between latitudes 41° and 84°N, and longitudes 52° and 141°W.

A satellite composite image of Canada.Boreal forests prevail on the rocky Canadian Shield, while ice and tundra are prominent in the Arctic. Glaciers are visible in theCanadian Rockies and Coast Mountains. The flat and fertile prairies facilitate agriculture. The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River in the southeast, where lowlands host much of Canada’s population.

Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60° and 141°W longitude,[83] but this claim is not universally recognized. Canada is home to the world’s northernmost settlement, Canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island – latitude 82.5°N – which lies 817 kilometres (508 mi) from the North Pole.[84] Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Canada has the longest coastline in the world, with a total length of 202,080 kilometres (125,570 mi);[82] additionally, its border with the United States is the world’s longest land border, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi).[85]

Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield.[86]Canada has around 31,700 large lakes,[87] more than any other country, containing much of the world’s fresh water.[88] There are also fresh-water glaciers in the Canadian Rockies and the Coast Mountains. Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount MeagerMount GaribaldiMount Cayley, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex.[89] The volcanic eruption of the Tseax Cone in 1775 was among Canada’s worst natural disasters, killing 2,000 Nisga’a people and destroying their village in the Nass River valley of northern British Columbia. The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga’a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River.[90]Canada’s population density, at 3.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (8.5/sq mi), is among the lowest in the world. The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, situated in Southern Quebec andSouthern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River.[91]

Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary from region to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the country, particularly in the interior and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where daily average temperatures are near −15 °C (5 °F), but can drop below −40 °C (−40 °F) with severe wind chills.[92] In noncoastal regions, snow can cover the ground for almost six months of the year, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. Coastal British Columbia has a temperate climate, with a mild and rainy winter. On the east and west coasts, average high temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C (70s °F), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C (77 to 86 °F), with temperatures in some interior locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).[93]

Government and politics

A building with a central clocktower rising from a block

Parliament Hill in Canada’s capital city, Ottawa

Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, andjudicial branches.[94][95][96][97] The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries and each of Canada’s ten provinces. As such, the Queen’s representative, the Governor General of Canada(at present David Lloyd Johnston), carries out most of the federal royal duties in Canada.[98][99]

The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in areas of governance is limited.[96][100][101] In practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and chosen and headed by the Prime Minister of Canada (at presentStephen Harper),[102] the head of government. The governor general or monarch may, though, in certain crisis situations exercise their power without ministerial advice.[100] To ensure the stability of government, the governor general will usually appoint as prime minister the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of aplurality in the House of Commons.[103] The Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) is thus one of the most powerful institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies.[100] The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes theLeader of Her Majesty’s Loyal Opposition (presently Thomas Mulcair) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.[104]

Each of the 308 members of parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice of the prime minister, within four years of the previous election, or if the government loses a confidence vote in the House.[105] The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until age 75.[106] Five parties had representatives elected to the federal parliament in the 2011 elections: the Conservative Party of Canada(governing party), the New Democratic Party (the Official Opposition), the Liberal Party of Canada, the Bloc Québécois, and the Green Party of Canada. The list ofhistorical parties with elected representation is substantial.

Canada’s federal structure divides government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces.Provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary fashion similar to the House of Commons.[101]Canada’s three territories also have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces.[107] The territorial legislatures also differ structurally from their provincial counterparts.[108]


Main article: Law of Canada

The Faculty of Law at McGill University is the oldest law school in Canada

The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law of the country, and consists of written text and unwritten conventions. The Constitution Act, 1867 (known as the British North America Act prior to 1982), affirmed governance based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments. The Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy and the Constitution Act, 1982, ended all legislative ties to the UK, as well as adding a constitutional amending formula and theCanadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that usually cannot be over-ridden by any government—though anotwithstanding clause allows the federal parliament and provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years.[109]

Two sides of a silver medal: the profile of Queen Victoria and the inscription "Victoria Regina" on one side, a man in European garb shaking hands with an Aboriginal with the inscription Indian Treaty No. 187 on the other

The Indian Chiefs Medal, presented to commemorate the Numbered Treaties of 1871–1921

Although not without conflict, European Canadians‘ early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful.[110] The Crown and Aboriginal peoples began interactions during the European colonialization period. The Indian Act, various treaties and case laws were established to mediate relations between Europeans and native peoples.[111] Most notably, a series of eleven treaties known as the Numbered Treaties were signed between Aboriginals in Canada and the reigning Monarch of Canada between 1871 and 1921.[112] These treaties are agreements with the Canadian Crown-in-Council, administered by Canadian Aboriginal law, and overseen by the Minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development. The role of the treaties and the rights they support were reaffirmed by Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982.[111] These rights may include provision of services such as health care, and exemption from taxation.[113] The legal and policy framework within which Canada and First Nations operate was further formalized in 2005, through the First Nations–Federal Crown Political Accord.[111]

The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill

Canada’s judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down Acts of Parliament that violate the constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led since 2000 by the Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin (the first female Chief Justice).[114] Its nine members are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and minister of justice. All judges at the superior and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with nongovernmental legal bodies. The federal Cabinet also appoints justices to superior courts in the provincial and territorial jurisdictions.[115]

Common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates.Criminal law is solely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada.[116] Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is officially a provincial responsibility, conducted by provincial and municipal police forces.[117] However, in most rural areas and some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police.[118]

Foreign relations and military

Canada currently employs a professional, volunteer military force of 68,250 active personnel and approximately 47,081 reserve personnel.[119] The unified Canadian Forces (CF) comprise the Canadian ArmyRoyal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. In 2011, Canada’s military expenditure totalled approximately C$24.5 billion.[120]

Canada and the United States share the world’s longest undefended border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other’s largest trading partner.[121] Canada nevertheless has an independent foreign policy, most notably maintaining full relations with Cuba and declining to officially participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Canada also maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former British and French colonies through Canada’s membership in the Commonwealth of Nationsand the Francophonie.[122] Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the Dutch liberation during World War II.[60]

Canada’s strong attachment to the British Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in British military efforts in the Second Boer War, World War I and World War II. Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations.[123][124] Canada was a founding member of the United Nations in 1945 and of NATO in 1949. During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in co-operation with the United States to defend against potential aerial attacks from the Soviet Union.[125]

Canadian Army soldiers from theRoyal 22nd Regiment deploying duringUNITAS exercises in April 2009

During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the inception of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize.[126] As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is often credited as the inventor of the concept. Canada has since served in 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping effort until 1989,[56] and has since maintained forces in international missions in Rwanda, the former Yugoslavia, and elsewhere; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its involvement in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia Affair.[127]

Canada joined the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, in June 2000 and the third Summit of the Americas in Quebec City in April 2001.[128] Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC).[129]

The Halifax-class frigate HMCSRegina, a warship of the Royal Canadian Navy, near Hawaii during the 2004 RIMPAC exercises

In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as part of the US stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. In all, Canada lost 158 soldiers, one diplomat, two aid workers, and one journalist during the ten year mission,[130] which cost approximately C$11.3 billion.[131]

In February 2007, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, Norway, and Russia announced their joint commitment to a $1.5-billion project to help develop vaccines for developing nations, and called on other countries to join them.[132] In August 2007, Canada’s territorial claims in the Arctic were challenged after a Russian underwater expedition to the North Pole; Canada has considered that area to be sovereign territory since 1925.[133] Between March and October 2011, Canadian forces participated in a UN-mandated NATO intervention into the 2011 Libyan civil war.[134]

International organizations

Canada is recognized as a middle power for its role in international affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions.[135] As well as its membership of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada is a member of regional and other international organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs.[136] Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976.[137]

Provinces and territories

Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions: Western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada (“Eastern Canada” refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together). Provinces have more autonomy than territories, having responsibility for social programs such as health careeducation, and welfare. Together, the provinces collect more revenue than the federal government, an almost unique structure among federations in the world. Using its spending powers, the federal government can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in practice. Equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure that reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces.[138]

A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals.

A clickable map of Canada exhibiting its ten provinces and three territories, and their capitals.

About this image


Main article: Economy of Canada

Nations that have Free Trade Agreements with Canada as of 2009 are in dark blue, while nations in negotiations are in cyan. Canada is green.

The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the country and governed by Stephen Poloz. In addition, theMinister of Finance and Ministry of Industry utilize theStatistics Canada system for financial planning. TheToronto Stock Exchange is the seventh largest exchange in the world having 1,577 companies listed in 2012. Canada is the world’s eleventh-largest economy, with a 2012 nominal GDP of approximately US$1.82 trillion.[6] It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Eight (G8), and is one of the world’s top ten trading nations, with a highly globalizedeconomy.[139][140] Canada is a mixed economy, ranking above the US and most western European nations on the Heritage Foundation‘s index of economic freedom,[141] and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity.[142] In 2008, Canada’s imported goods were worth over $442.9 billion, of which $280.8 billion originated from the United States, $11.7 billion from Japan, and $11.3 billion from the United Kingdom.[143] The country’s 2009 trade deficit totalled C$4.8 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008.[144]

Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada’s manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanized, industrial one. Like many other developed nations, the Canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the country’s workforce.[145]However, Canada is unusual among developed countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the logging andpetroleum industries are two of the most prominent components.[146]

Canada is one of the few developed nations that are net exporters of energy.[147] Atlantic Canada possesses vast offshoredeposits of natural gas, and Alberta also hosts large oil and gas resources. The vastness of the Athabasca oil sands and other assets results in Canada having 13% of the global oil reserves, the world’s third-largest, after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia.[148] Canada is additionally one of the world’s largest suppliers of agricultural products; the Canadian Prairies are one of the most important global producers of wheat, canola, and other grains.[149] The Ministry of Natural Resources in Canada provides statistics regarding their major exports, zinc and uranium, and is a leading exporter of many other minerals, such as goldnickelaluminumsteeliron oreCoking Coal, and lead.[147][150][151] Many towns in northern Canada, where agriculture is difficult, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timber. Canada also has a sizeable manufacturing sector centred in southern Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing particularly important industries.[152]

Representatives of the governments of Canada, Mexico, and the United States sign the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1992.

Canada’s economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened Canada’s borders to trade in the automobile manufacturing industry. In the 1970s, concerns over energy self-sufficiency and foreign ownership in the manufacturing sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau‘s Liberal government to enact theNational Energy Program (NEP) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency(FIRA).[153] In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney‘s Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to “Investment Canada“, to encourage foreign investment.[154] The Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994.[149] In the mid-1990s, Jean Chrétien‘s Liberal government began to post annual budgetary surpluses, and steadily paid down the national debt.[155]

The global financial crisis of 2008 caused a major recession, which led to a significant rise in unemployment in Canada.[156]By October 2009, Canada’s national unemployment rate had reached 8.6 percent, with provincial unemployment rates varying from a low of 5.8 percent in Manitoba to a high of 17 percent in Newfoundland and Labrador.[157] Between October 2008 and October 2010, the Canadian labour market lost 162,000 full-time jobs and a total of 224,000 permanent jobs.[158]Canada’s federal debt was estimated to total $566.7 billion for the fiscal year 2010–11, up from $463.7 billion in 2008–09.[159] In addition, Canada’s net foreign debt rose by $41 billion to $194 billion in the first quarter of 2010.[160] However, Canada’s regulated banking sector (comparatively conservative among G8 nations), the federal government’s pre-crisis budgetary surpluses, and its long-term policies of lowering the national debt, resulted in a less severe recession compared to other G8 nations.[161] As of 2013, the majority of the Canadian economy has stabilized, although the country remains troubled by slow growth, sensitivity to the Eurozone crisis and higher-than-normal unemployment rates.[162] The federal government and many Canadian industries have also started to expand trade with emerging Asian markets, in an attempt to diversify exports; in 2011, Asia was Canada’s second-largest export market, after the United States.[163][164] Widely debated oil pipeline proposals, in particular, are hoped to increase exports of Canadian oil reserves to China.[165][166]

Science and technology

A shuttle in space, with Earth in the background. A mechanical arm labelled "Canada" rises from the shuttle

The Canadarm robotic manipulator in action on Space Shuttle Discoveryduring the STS-116 mission in 2006.

In 2011, Canada spent approximately C$29.9 billion on domestic research and development.[167] As of 2012, the country has produced fourteen Nobel laureates inphysicschemistry and medicine,[168] and was ranked fourth worldwide for scientific research quality in a major 2012 survey of international scientists.[169] It has headquarters for a number of global technology firms.[170] Canada ranks seventeenth in the world for Internet users as a proportion of the population, with over 28.4 million users, equivalent to around 83 percent of its total 2012 population.[171]

The Canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, planetary, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites. Canada was the third country to launch a satellite into space after theUSSR and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch.[172] In 1984, Marc Garneau became Canada’s first astronaut. As of 2013, nine Canadians have flown into space, over the course of fifteen manned missions.[173]

Canada is a participant in the International Space Station (ISS), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed theCanadarmCanadarm2 and Dextre robotic manipulators for the ISS and NASA’s Space Shuttle. Since the 1960s, Canada’s aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2ISIS and MOST.[174]Canada has also produced a successful and widely used sounding rocket, the Black Brant; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket’s introduction in 1961.[175]


Main articles: Canadians and Demographics of Canada
Circle frame.svg

Ethnic origins of people in Canada (self-reported 2011 Census)[176]

  European (76.7%)
  Asian (14.2%)
  Aboriginal (4.3%)
  Black (2.9%)
  Latin American (1.2%)
  Multiracial (0.5%)
  Other (0.3%)

The 2011 Canadian census counted a total population of 33,476,688, an increase of around 5.9 percent over the 2006 figure.[177][178] By December 2012, Statistics Canadareported a population of over 35 million, signifying the fastest growth rate of any G8 nation.[179] Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percent overall growth. The main drivers of population growth areimmigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth.

About four-fifths of the population lives within 150 kilometres (93 mi) of the United States border.[180] Approximately 80 percent of Canadians live in urban areas concentrated in the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, the British Columbia Lower Mainland, and the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor in Alberta.[181] Canada spans latitudinally from the 83rd parallel north to the 41st parallel north, and approximately 95% of the population is found below the 55th parallel north. In common with many other developed countries, Canada is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2006, the average age was 39.5 years;[182] by 2011, it had risen to approximately 39.9 years.[183]As of 2013, the average life expectancy for Canadians is 81 years.[184]

According to the 2006 census, the country’s largest self-reported ethnic origin is Canadian (accounting for 32% of the population), followed by English (21%), French(15.8%), Scottish (15.1%), Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (4.6%), Chinese(4.3%), First Nations (4.0%), Ukrainian (3.9%), and Dutch (3.3%).[185] There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a total of 1,172,790 people.[186]

Canada’s aboriginal population is growing at almost twice the national rate, and four percent of Canada’s population claimed aboriginal identity in 2006. Another 16.2 percent of the population belonged to a non-aboriginal visible minority.[187]In 2006, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian (4.0%), Chinese (3.9%) and Black (2.5%). Between 2001 and 2006, the visible minority population rose by 27.2 percent.[188] In 1961, less than two percent of Canada’s population (about 300,000 people) were members of visible minority groups.[189] By 2007, almost one in five (19.8%) were foreign-born, with nearly 60 percent of new immigrants coming from Asia (including the Middle East).[190] The leading sources of immigrants to Canada were China, the Philippines and India.[191] According to Statistics Canada, visible minority groups could account for a third of the Canadian population by 2031.[192]

Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the world,[193] driven by economic policy and family reunification. In 2010, a record 280,636 people immigrated to Canada.[194] The Canadian government anticipated between 240,000 and 265,000 new permanent residents in 2013,[195] a similar number of immigrants as in recent years.[196] New immigrants settle mostly in major urban areas like Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver.[197] Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees,[198] accounting for over 10 percent of annual global refugee resettlements.[199]

Map of Canadian provinces adjusted by population. Each dot represents approx. 100,000 people. GMAs of Toronto and Montreal have been grouped separately. The green dot at the top left represents the three territories of Canada.

Canada is religiously diverse, encompassing a wide range of beliefs and customs. According to the 2011 census, 67.3% of Canadians identify as Christian; of these,Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7% of the population. The largest Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada (accounting for 6.1% of Canadians), followed by Anglicans (5.0%), and Baptists (1.9%). In 2011, about 23.9% declared no religious affiliation, compared to 16.5% in 2001.[200] The remaining 8.8% are affiliated with non-Christian religions, the largest of which areIslam (3.2%) and Hinduism (1.5%).[201]

Canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education. The mandatory school age ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years,[202] contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percent.[82] As of 2011, 88 percent of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 74 percent.[203] In 2002, 43 percent of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education; for those aged 25 to 34, the rate of post-secondary education reached 51 percent.[204] According to a 2012 NBC report, Canada is the most educated country in the world.[205] The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates that Canadian students perform well above the OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and reading.[206][207]

Name Province Population Name Province Population
Toronto Ontario 5,583,064 London Ontario 474,786
Montreal Quebec 3,824,221 St. CatharinesNiagara Ontario 392,184
Vancouver British Columbia 2,313,328 Halifax Nova Scotia 390,328
OttawaGatineau OntarioQuebec 1,236,324 Oshawa Ontario 356,177
Calgary Alberta 1,214,839 Victoria British Columbia 344,615
Edmonton Alberta 1,159,869 Windsor Ontario 319,246
Quebec Quebec 765,706 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 260,600
Winnipeg Manitoba 730,018 Regina Saskatchewan 210,556
Hamilton Ontario 721,053 Sherbrooke Quebec 201,890
KitchenerCambridgeWaterloo Ontario 477,160 St. John’s Newfoundland and Labrador 196,966


Main article: Languages of Canada

Canada’s two official languages are English and French, pursuant to Section 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Federal Official Languages Act. Canada’s federal government practices official bilingualism, which is applied by the Commissioner of Official Languages. English and French have equal status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or French, and official-language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories.[208]

Approximately 98% of Canadians can speak English and/or French.[209]

  English – 56.9%
  English and French (Bilingual) – 16.1%
  French – 21.3%
  Sparsely populated area ( 0.4 persons per km2)

English and French are the first languages of 59.7 and 23.2 percent of the population respectively. Approximately 98 percent of Canadians speak English or French: 57.8 percent speak English only, 22.1 percent speak French only, and 17.4 percent speak both.[209] The English and French official-language communities, defined by the first official language spoken, constitute 73.0 and 23.6 percent of the population respectively.[210]

The 1977 Charter of the French Language established French as the official language of Quebec.[211] Although more than 85 percent of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations inOntarioAlberta, and southern Manitoba; Ontario has the largest French-speaking population outside Quebec.[212] New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a French-speaking Acadian minority constituting 33 percent of the population. There are also clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through central and western Prince Edward Island.[213]

Other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of instruction, in courts, and for other government services, in addition to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec allow for both English and French to be spoken in the provincial legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal status, but is not fully co-official.[214] There are 11 Aboriginal language groups, composed of more than 65 distinct dialects.[215] Of these, only theCreeInuktitut and Ojibway languages have a large enough population of fluent speakers to be considered viable tosurvive in the long term.[216] Several aboriginal languages have official status in the Northwest Territories.[217] Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and is one of three official languages in the territory.[218]

In 2011, nearly 6.8 million Canadians listed a non-official language as their mother tongue.[219] Some of the most common non-official first languages include Chinese (mainly Cantonese; 1,072,555 first-language speakers), Punjabi (430,705),Spanish (410,670), German (409,200), and Italian (407,490).[220]


Main article: Culture of Canada

Bill Reid‘s 1980 sculpture Raven and The First Men. The Raven is a figure common to many of Canada’s Aboriginal mythologies.

Canada’s culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote multiculturalism are constitutionally protected.[221] In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many French-speaking commentators speak of a culture of Quebec that is distinct from English Canadian culture.[222]However, as a whole, Canada is in theory a cultural mosaic – a collection of several regional, aboriginal, and ethnic subcultures.[223] Government policies such aspublicly funded health carehigher taxation to redistribute wealth, the outlawing ofcapital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, strict gun control, and the legalization of same-sex marriage are further social indicators of Canada’s political and cultural values.[224]

Historically, Canada has been influenced by BritishFrench, and aboriginal cultures and traditions. Through their language, art and music, aboriginal peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity.[225] Many Canadians value multiculturalism and see Canada as being inherently multicultural.[67] American media and entertainment are popular, if not dominant, in English Canada; conversely, many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the United States and worldwide.[226] The preservation of a distinctly Canadian culture is supported by federal government programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and theCanadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).[227]

Oil on canvas painting of a tree dominating its rocky landscape during a sunset.

The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson. Oil on canvas, 1916, in the collection of theNational Gallery of Canada.

Canadian visual art has been dominated by figures such as Tom Thomson – the country’s most famous painter – and by the Group of Seven. Thomson’s career painting Canadian landscapes spanned a decade up to his death in 1917 at age 39.[228] The Group were painters with a nationalistic and idealistic focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Though referred to as having seven members, five artists – Lawren HarrisA. Y. JacksonArthur LismerJ. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley – were responsible for articulating the Group’s ideas. They were joined briefly by Frank Johnston, and by commercial artistFranklin CarmichaelA. J. Casson became part of the Group in 1926.[229]Associated with the Group was another prominent Canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.[230] Since the 1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the Canadian government.[231]

The Canadian music industry has produced internationally renowned composersmusicians and ensembles.[232] Music broadcasting in the country is regulated by the CRTC. The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada’s music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970.[233] Patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct category from British patriotism, preceding the first legal steps to independence by over 50 years. The earliest, The Bold Canadian, was written in 1812.[234] The national anthem of Canada, “O Canada“, was originally commissioned by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the Honourable Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony, and was officially adopted in 1980.[235] Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a setting of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The text was originally only in French, before it was translated to English in 1906.[236]

Hockey players and fans celebrating

Canada’s ice hockey victory at the2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver

The roots of organized sports in Canada date back to the 1770s.[237] Canada’s official national sports are ice hockey and lacrosse.[238] Seven of Canada’s eight largest metropolitan areas – Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg – have franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL). Other popular spectator sports in Canada include curling and Canadian football; the latter is played professionally in the Canadian Football League (CFL). Golftennis,baseballskiingcricketvolleyballrugby unionsoccer and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur levels, but professional leagues and franchises are not widespread.[239] Canada does have one professional baseball team, theToronto Blue Jays, one professional basketball team, the Toronto Raptors and three Major League Soccer teams, Toronto FCVancouver Whitecaps FC and theMontreal Impact. Canada has participated in almost every Olympic Games since its Olympic debut in 1900, and has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary, the 1994 Basketball World Championship, the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup, and the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia.[240]

Canada’s national symbols are influenced by natural, historical, and Aboriginal sources. The use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates to the early 18th century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada’s current and previous flags, on the penny, and on the Arms of Canada.[241] Other prominent symbols include the beaverCanada GooseCommon Loon, the Crown, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police,[241] and more recently, the totem pole and Inuksuk.[242]

See also


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  49. Jump up^ Evenden, Leonard J; Turbeville, Daniel E (1992). “The Pacific Coast Borderland and Frontier”. In Janelle, Donald G. Geographical snapshots of North America. Guilford Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-89862-030-6.
  50. Jump up^ Gertjan Dijkink; Hans Knippenberg (2001). The Territorial Factor: Political Geography in a Globalising World. Amsterdam University Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-90-5629-188-4.
  51. Jump up to:a b Bothwell, Robert (1996). History of Canada Since 1867. Michigan State University Press. pp. 31, 207–310.ISBN 978-0-87013-399-2.
  52. Jump up^ Bumsted, JM (1996). The Red River Rebellion. Watson & Dwyer. ISBN 978-0-920486-23-8.
  53. Jump up to:a b “Building a nation”Canadian Atlas. Canadian Geographic. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  54. Jump up^ “Sir John A. Macdonald”. Library and Archives Canada. 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  55. Jump up^ Cook, Terry (2000). “The Canadian West: An Archival Odyssey through the Records of the Department of the Interior”The Archivist. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  56. Jump up to:a b c d e f Morton, Desmond (1999). A military history of Canada (4th ed.). McClelland & Stewart. pp. 130–158, 173, 203–233, 258. ISBN 978-0-7710-6514-9.
  57. Jump up^ Haglund, David G; MacFarlane, S Neil (1999). Security, strategy and the global economics of defence production. McGill-Queen’s University Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-88911-875-1.
  58. Jump up^ Robert B. Bryce (June 1, 1986). Maturing in Hard Times: Canada’s Department of Finance through the Great Depression. McGill-Queens. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7735-0555-1.
  59. Jump up^ Mulvale, James P (July 11, 2008). “Basic Income and the Canadian Welfare State: Exploring the Realms of Possibility”. Basic Income Studies 3 (1). doi:10.2202/1932-0183.1084.
  60. Jump up to:a b Goddard, Lance (2005). Canada and the Liberation of the Netherlands. Dundurn Press. pp. 225–232. ISBN 978-1-55002-547-7.
  61. Jump up^ Bothwell, Robert (2007). Alliance and illusion: Canada and the world, 1945–1984. UBC Press. pp. 11, 31.ISBN 978-0-7748-1368-6.
  62. Jump up^ J. Patrick Boyer (1996). Direct Democracy in Canada: The History and Future of Referendums. Dundurn. p. 119. ISBN 978-1-4597-1884-5.
  63. Jump up^ Mackey, Eva (2002). The house of difference: cultural politics and national identity in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8020-8481-1.
  64. Jump up^ Landry, Rodrigue; Forgues, Éric (May 2007). “Official language minorities in Canada: an introduction”.International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2007(185): 1–9. doi:10.1515/IJSL.2007.022.
  65. Jump up^ Esses, Victoria M; Gardner, RC (July 1996). “Multiculturalism in Canada: Context and current status”.Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 28 (3): 145–152.doi:10.1037/h0084934.
  66. Jump up^ Sarrouh, Elissar (January 22, 2002). “Social Policies in Canada: A Model for Development”Social Policy Series, No. 1. United Nations. pp. 14–16, 22–37. Archived from the original on February 1, 2010. RetrievedMay 23, 2011.
  67. Jump up to:a b Bickerton, James; Gagnon, Alain, ed. (2004).Canadian Politics (4th ed.). Broadview Press. pp. 250–254, 344–347. ISBN 978-1-55111-595-5.
  68. Jump up^ Légaré, André (2008). “Canada’s Experiment with Aboriginal Self-Determination in Nunavut: From Vision to Illusion”. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 15 (2–3): 335–367.doi:10.1163/157181108X332659.
  69. Jump up^ Munroe, HD (2009). “The October Crisis Revisited: Counterterrorism as Strategic Choice, Political Result, and Organizational Practice”. Terrorism and Political Violence21 (2): 288–305. doi:10.1080/09546550902765623.
  70. Jump up to:a b Sorens, J (December 2004). “Globalization, secessionism, and autonomy”. Electoral Studies 23 (4): 727–752. doi:10.1016/j.electstud.2003.10.003.
  71. Jump up^ Leblanc, Daniel (August 13, 2010). “A brief history of the Bloc Québécois”The Globe and Mail. RetrievedNovember 25, 2010.
  72. Jump up^ Betz, Hans-Georg; Immerfall, Stefan (1998). The new politics of the Right: neo-Populist parties and movements in established democracies. St. Martinʼs Press. p. 173.ISBN 978-0-312-21134-9.
  73. Jump up^ “Commission of Inquiry into the Investigation of the Bombing of Air India Flight 182”. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  74. Jump up^ Sourour, Teresa K (1991). “Report of Coroner’s Investigation” (PDF). Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  75. Jump up^ “The Oka Crisis” (Digital Archives). CBC. 2000. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  76. Jump up^ Roach, Kent (2003). September 11: consequences for Canada. McGill-Queen’s University Press. pp. 15, 59–61, 194. ISBN 978-0-7735-2584-9.
  77. Jump up^ “Canada and Multilateral Operations in Support of Peace and Stability”. National Defence and the Canadian Forces. 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  78. Jump up^ “UNPROFOR”. Royal Canadian Dragoons. RetrievedOctober 24, 2012.
  79. Jump up^ Jockel, Joseph T; Sokolsky, Joel B (2008). “Canada and the war in Afghanistan: NATO’s odd man out steps forward”. Journal of Transatlantic Studies 6 (1): 100–115.doi:10.1080/14794010801917212.
  80. Jump up^ “Canada Recession: Global Recovery Still Fragile 3 Years On”Huffington Post. July 22, 2012. RetrievedSeptember 1, 2012.
  81. Jump up^ “Canada’s military contribution in Libya”. CBC. October 20, 2011. Retrieved November 27, 2011.
  82. Jump up to:a b c d “Canada”World Factbook. CIA. May 16, 2006. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  83. Jump up^ Niels West (2004). Marine Affairs Dictionary: Terms, Concepts, Laws, Court Cases, and International Conventions and Agreements. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-313-30421-7.
  84. Jump up^ Canadian Geographic. Royal Canadian Geographical Society. 2008. p. 20.
  85. Jump up^ “The Boundary”. International Boundary Commission. 1985. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
  86. Jump up^ National Atlas of Canada. Natural Resources Canada. 2005. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-7705-1198-2.
  87. Jump up^ I.e., lakes over 3 square kilometres (300 ha) in area.Thomas V. Cech (2010). Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management, and Policy. John Wiley & Sons. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-470-13631-7.
  88. Jump up^ Bailey, William G; Oke, TR; Rouse, Wayne R (1997).The surface climates of Canada. McGill-Queen’s University Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-7735-1672-4.
  89. Jump up^ Etkin, David; Haque, CE; Brooks, Gregory R (April 30, 2003). An Assessment of Natural Hazards and Disasters in Canada. Springer. pp. 569, 582, 583. ISBN 978-1-4020-1179-5.
  90. Jump up^ Jessop, A. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5906. Natural Resources Canada. pp. 18–. GGKEY:6DLTQFWQ9HG.
  91. Jump up^ Peter H. McMurry; Marjorie F. Shepherd; James S. Vickery (2004). Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment. Cambridge University Press. p. 391. ISBN 978-0-521-84287-7.
  92. Jump up^ The Weather Network“Statistics, Regina SK”. Archived from the original on January 5, 2009. RetrievedJanuary 18, 2010.
  93. Jump up^ “Canadian Climate Normals or Averages 1971–2000”. Environment Canada. March 25, 2004. Retrieved May 23,2011.
  94. Jump up^ Queen Victoria (March 29, 1867). “Constitution Act, 1867: Preamble”. Queen’s Printer. Retrieved May 23,2011.
  95. Jump up^ Smith, David E (June 10, 2010). “The Crown and the Constitution: Sustaining Democracy?”The Crown in Canada: Present Realities and Future Options (Queen’s University). p. 6. Archived from the original on June 17, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  96. Jump up to:a b MacLeod, Kevin S (2012). A Crown of Maples (2nd ed.). Queen’s Printer for Canada. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  97. Jump up^ Canadian Heritage (February 2009). “Canadian Heritage Portfolio” (2nd ed.). Queen’s Printer. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-100-11529-0. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  98. Jump up^ “The Governor General of Canada: Roles and Responsibilities”. Queen’s Printer. Retrieved May 23,2011.
  99. Jump up^ Commonwealth public administration reform 2004. Commonwealth Secretariat. 2004. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-11-703249-1.
  100. Jump up to:a b c Forsey, Eugene (2005). How Canadians Govern Themselves (6th ed.). Queen’s Printer. pp. 1, 16, 26.ISBN 978-0-662-39689-5. Archived from the original on January 15, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  101. Jump up to:a b Marleau, Robert; Montpetit, Camille. “House of Commons Procedure and Practice: Parliamentary Institutions”. Queen’s Printer. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  102. Jump up^ “Prime Minister of Canada”. Queen’s Printer. 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  103. Jump up^ Johnson, David (2006). Thinking government: public sector management in Canada (2nd ed.). University of Toronto Press. pp. 134–135, 149. ISBN 978-1-55111-779-9.
  104. Jump up^ “The Opposition in a Parliamentary System”. Library of Parliament. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  105. Jump up^ O’Neal, Brian; Bédard, Michel; Spano, Sebastian (April 11, 2011). “Government and Canada’s 41st Parliament: Questions and Answers”. Library of Parliament. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
  106. Jump up^ Ann L. Griffiths; Karl Nerenberg (2003). Handbook of Federal Countries. McGill-Queen’s Press. p. 116.ISBN 978-0-7735-7047-4.
  107. Jump up^ “Difference between Canadian Provinces and Territories”. Intergovernmental Affairs Canada. 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  108. Jump up^ “Differences from Provincial Governments”. Legislative Assembly of the Northwest Territories. 2008. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
  109. Jump up^ Bakan, Joel; Elliot, Robin M (2003). Canadian Constitutional Law. Emond Montgomery Publications. pp. 3–8, 683–687, 699. ISBN 978-1-55239-085-6.
  110. Jump up^ David L. Preston (2009). The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667-1783. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 43–44.ISBN 978-0-8032-2549-7.
  111. Jump up to:a b c Patterson, Lisa Lynne (2004). “Aboriginal roundtable on Kelowna Accord: Aboriginal policy negotiations 2004–2006”. 1. Parliamentary Information and Research Service, Library of Parliament. p. 3. Retrieved October 23,2014.
  112. Jump up^ “Treaty areas”. Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. October 7, 2002. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  113. Jump up^ Gary Brent Madison (2000). Is There a Canadian Philosophy?: Reflections on the Canadian Identity. University of Ottawa Press. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7766-0514-2.
  114. Jump up^ McCormick, Peter (2000). Supreme at last: the evolution of the Supreme Court of Canada. James Lorimer & Company Ltd. pp. 2, 86, 154. ISBN 978-1-55028-692-2.
  115. Jump up^ Richard Yates; Penny Bain; Ruth Yates (2000).Introduction to law in Canada. Prentice Hall Allyn and Bacon Canada. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-13-792862-0.
  116. Jump up^ Sworden, Philip James (2006). An introduction to Canadian law. Emond Montgomery Publications. pp. 22, 150. ISBN 978-1-55239-145-7.
  117. Jump up^ “Ontario Provincial Police”. OPP official website. 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  118. Jump up^ Royal Canadian Mounted Police. “Keeping Canada and Our Communities Safe and Secure”. Queen’s Printer. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. RetrievedMay 23, 2011.
  119. Jump up^ “Military Strength of Canada”. Global Firepower. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  120. Jump up^ “Military expenditure of Canada”SIPRI. RetrievedMay 3, 2012.
  121. Jump up^ Haglung, David G (Autumn 2003). “North American Cooperation in an Era of Homeland Security”. Orbis(Foreign Policy Research Institute47 (4): 675–691.doi:10.1016/S0030-4387(03)00072-3.
  122. Jump up^ James, Patrick (2006). Michaud, Nelson; O’Reilly, Marc J, ed. Handbook of Canadian Foreign Policy. Lexington Books. pp. 213–214, 349–362. ISBN 978-0-7391-1493-3.
  123. Jump up^ Teigrob, Robert (September 2010). “‘Which Kind of Imperialism?’ Early Cold War Decolonization and Canada–US Relations”. Canadian Review of American Studies 37(3): 403–430. doi:10.3138/cras.37.3.403.
  124. Jump up^ Canada’s international policy statement: a role of pride and influence in the world. Government of Canada. 2005.ISBN 978-0-662-68608-8.
  125. Jump up^ Finkel, Alvin (1997). Our lives: Canada after 1945. Lorimer. pp. 105–107, 111–116. ISBN 978-1-55028-551-2.
  126. Jump up^ Holloway, Steven Kendall (2006). Canadian foreign policy: defining the national interest. University of Toronto Press. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-1-55111-816-1.
  127. Jump up^ Farnsworth, Clyde H (November 27, 1994). “Torture by Army Peacekeepers in Somalia Shocks Canada”The New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  128. Jump up^ “Canada and the Organization of American States (OAS)”. Canadian Heritage. 2008. Retrieved May 23,2011.
  129. Jump up^ Ibp Usa. Canada Intelligence, Security Activities and Operations Handbook Volume 1 Intelligence Service Organizations, Regulations, Activities. Int’l Business Publications. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7397-1615-1.
  130. Jump up^ Murray Brewster (September 27, 2013). “Canada lost Afghan war, says author”. Canada free press (iPOLOTICS). Retrieved January 23, 2012.
  131. Jump up^ “Cost of the Afghanistan mission 2001–2011”. Government of Canada. Retrieved July 11, 2011.
  132. Jump up^ Vagnoni, Giselda (February 5, 2007). “Rich nations to sign $1.5 bln vaccine pact in Italy”. Reuters. RetrievedMay 23, 2011.
  133. Jump up^ Blomfield, Adrian (August 3, 2007). “Russia claims North Pole with Arctic flag stunt”The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  134. Jump up^ “Canada’s Libya mission to end in 2 weeks”. CBC. October 20, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
  135. Jump up^ Adam Chapnick (2011). The Middle Power Project: Canada and the Founding of the United Nations. UBC Press. pp. 2–5. ISBN 978-0-7748-4049-1.
  136. Jump up^ “International Organizations and Forums”. Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada. 2013. RetrievedMarch 3, 2014.
  137. Jump up^ “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights”. United Nations. 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.
  138. Jump up^ Bird, Richard M (October 22, 2008). “Government Finance”Historical Statistics of Canada. Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  139. Jump up^ “Latest release”. World Trade Organization. April 17, 2008. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  140. Jump up^ “Index of Globalization 2010”. KOF. Retrieved May 22,2012.
  141. Jump up^ “Index of Economic Freedom”. Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal. 2013. Retrieved June 27,2013.
  142. Jump up^ “Jonathan Kay: The key to Canada’s economic advantage over the United States? Less income inequality”National Post. December 13, 2012. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
  143. Jump up^ “Imports, exports and trade balance of goods on a balance-of-payments basis, by country or country grouping”. Statistics Canada. November 16, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  144. Jump up^ Grant, Tavia (February 10, 2010). “Canada has first yearly trade deficit since 1975”The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  145. Jump up^ “Employment by Industry”. Statistics Canada. January 8, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  146. Jump up^ Easterbrook, WT (March 1995). “Recent Contributions to Economic History: Canada”. Journal of Economic History19: 98.
  147. Jump up to:a b Brown, Charles E (2002). World energy resources. Springer. pp. 323, 378–389. ISBN 978-3-540-42634-9.
  148. Jump up^ “World proven crude oil reserves by country, 1960–2011”. Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. 2012. Oil & Gas Journal’s oil reserve estimate for Canada includes 5.392 billion barrels (857,300,000 m3) of conventional crude oil and condensate reserves and 173.2 billion barrels (2.754×1010 m3) of oil sands reserves. Information collated by EIA
  149. Jump up to:a b Britton, John NH (1996). Canada and the Global Economy: The Geography of Structural and Technological Change. McGill-Queen’s University Press. pp. 26–27, 155–163. ISBN 978-0-7735-1356-3.
  150. Jump up^ “Zinc Production by Country (Metric tons, zinc content of concentrate and direct shipping ore, unless otherwise specified)”United States Geological Survey data via Index Mundi. 2009. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
  151. Jump up^ Mineral Trade | Natural Resources Canada
  152. Jump up^ Leacy, FH, ed. (1983). “Vl-12”. Statistics Canada. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  153. Jump up^ Morck, Randall; Tian, Gloria; Yeung, Bernard (2005). “Who owns whom? Economic nationalism and family controlled pyramidal groups in Canada”. In Eden, Lorraine; Dobson, Wendy. Governance, multinationals, and growth. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-84376-909-5.
  154. Jump up^ Hale, Geoffrey (October 2008). “The Dog That Hasn’t Barked: The Political Economy of Contemporary Debates on Canadian Foreign Investment Policies”. Canadian Journal of Political Science 41 (3): 719–747.doi:10.1017/S0008423908080785.
  155. Jump up^ David Johnson (2006). Thinking Government: Public Sector Management in Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 374. ISBN 978-1-55111-779-9.
  156. Jump up^ Sturgeon, Jamie (March 13, 2009). “Jobless rate to peak at 10%: TD”National Post. Archived from the originalon February 1, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  157. Jump up^ “Latest release from Labour Force Survey”. Statistics Canada. November 6, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  158. Jump up^ Yalnizyan, Armine (October 15, 2010). “The real state of Canada’s jobs market”The Globe and Mail. RetrievedDecember 12, 2010.
  159. Jump up^ “Budget fights deficit with freeze on future spending”.CTV News. March 4, 2010. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  160. Jump up^ “Canada’s international investment position”The Daily. Statistics Canada. June 17, 2010. RetrievedMay 23, 2011.
  161. Jump up^ “Canada’s Budget Triumph” (PDF). Mercatus Center (George Mason University). September 30, 2010. Retrieved July 15, 2013.
  162. Jump up^ “Update of Economic and Fiscal Projections”. Department of Finance Canada. 2013. RetrievedFebruary 11, 2014.
  163. Jump up^ “Canada’s Trade with the World, by Region”. Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada. March 22, 2012. RetrievedJanuary 9, 2013.
  164. Jump up^ “Minister Fast Congratulates the Organizers of the Canada and Free Trade with Asia Conference”. Canadian International Council. 2013. RetrievedFebruary 11, 2014.
  165. Jump up^ “Northern Gateway pipeline would strengthen trade ties to China”The Globe and Mail. May 7, 2012. RetrievedAugust 19, 2012.
  166. Jump up^ “Pipeline economics: China needs oil, and Canada’s got it”. September 25, 2012. RetrievedDecember 4, 2012.
  167. Jump up^ “Spending on research and development”. Statistics Canada. January 13, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
  168. Jump up^ “Canadian Nobel Prize in Science Laureates”. Queen’s University. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
  169. Jump up^ “Canada ranked fourth in the world for scientific research”The Globe and Mail. September 26, 2012. Retrieved October 17, 2012.
  170. Jump up^ “Top 250 Canadian Technology Companies”. Branham Group Inc. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
  171. Jump up^ “Internet Usage and Population in North America”. Internet World Stats, June 2012. Retrieved December 20,2012.
  172. Jump up^ “Alouette I and II”. CSA. Retrieved November 30,2012.
  173. Jump up^ “Canada’s astronauts”CBC News. October 26, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2011.
  174. Jump up^ “The Canadian Aerospace Industry praises the federal government for recognizing Space as a strategic capability for Canada”. Newswire. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  175. Jump up^ “Black Brant Sounding Rockets”. Magellan Aerospace. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  176. Jump up^ “Ancestry in Canada”. Retrieved October 5, 2014.
  177. Jump up^ “2011 Census: Population and dwelling counts”. Statistics Canada. February 8, 2012. Retrieved February 8,2012.
  178. Jump up^ Beauchesne, Eric (March 13, 2007). “We are 31,612,897”National Post. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  179. Jump up^ Green, Jeff (December 6, 2012). “Canada’s population hits 35 million”The Toronto Star. RetrievedSeptember 16, 2013.
  180. Jump up^ Custred, Glynn (2008). “Security Threats on America’s Borders”. In Moens, Alexander. Immigration policy and the terrorist threat in Canada and the United States. Fraser Institute. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-88975-235-1.
  181. Jump up^ “Urban-rural population as a proportion of total population, Canada, provinces, territories and health regions”. Statistics Canada. 2001. Retrieved May 23,2011.
  182. Jump up^ Martel, Laurent; Malenfant, Éric Caron (September 22, 2009). “2006 Census: Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006, by Age and Sex”. Statistics Canada. RetrievedOctober 18, 2009.
  183. Jump up^ “Canadian population creeps up in average age”. CBC. September 28, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
  184. Jump up^ “2013 Human Development Index and its components – Statistics” (PDF). UNDP. 2013. Retrieved March 15,2013.
  185. Jump up^ “Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada – Data table”. Statistics Canada. July 28, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2011.
  186. Jump up^ “Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data”2006 Census: Topic-based tabulations. Statistics Canada. June 12, 2008. Retrieved September 18, 2009.
  187. Jump up^ Anita Kalunta-Crumpton; Texas Southern University (2012). Race, Ethnicity, Crime and Criminal Justice in the Americas. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-230-35586-6.
  188. Jump up^ “2006 Census: Ethnic origin, visible minorities, place of work and mode of transportation”The Daily. Statistics Canada. April 2, 2008. Retrieved January 19, 2010.
  189. Jump up^ Pendakur, Krishna. “Visible Minorities and Aboriginal Peoples in Vancouver’s Labour Market”. Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original on May 16, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
  190. Jump up^ “2006 Census: Immigration, citizenship, language, mobility and migration”The Daily. Statistics Canada. December 4, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
  191. Jump up^ Lilley, Brian (2010). “Canadians want immigration shakeup”Parliamentary Bureau. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved November 14, 2010.
  192. Jump up^ Friesen, Joe (March 9, 2010). “The changing face of Canada: booming minority populations by 2031”The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
  193. Jump up^ Zimmerman, Karla (2008). Canada (10th ed.). Lonely Planet Publications. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-74104-571-0.
  194. Jump up^ “Canada welcomes highest number of legal immigrants in 50 years while taking action to maintain the integrity of Canada’s immigration system”. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. February 13, 2011. RetrievedFebruary 11, 2012.
  195. Jump up^ “Supplementary Information for the 2013 Immigration Levels Plan”. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
  196. Jump up^ “Immigration overview – Permanent and temporary residents”Citizenship and Immigration Canada. 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014.
  197. Jump up^ Herbert G. Grubel (2009). The Effects of Mass Immigration on Canadian Living Standards and Society. The Fraser Institute. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-88975-246-7.
  198. Jump up^ “Government of Canada Tables 2011 Immigration Plan”. Canada News Centre. Retrieved December 12,2010.
  199. Jump up^ Alan Simmons (2010). Immigration and Canada: Global and Transnational Perspectives. Canadian Scholars’ Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-55130-362-8.
  200. Jump up^ “‘No Religion’ Is Increasingly Popular For Canadians: Report”Huffington Post. May 15, 2013. RetrievedMay 19, 2013.
  201. Jump up^ “Religions in Canada—Census 2011”. Statistics Canada/Statistique Canada. 2011. Retrieved May 19,2013.
  202. Jump up^ “Overview of Education in Canada”. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Archived from the original on January 5, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
  203. Jump up^ Canada – OECD Better Life Index. Retrieved on January 1, 2013.
  204. Jump up^ “Creating Opportunities for All Canadians”. Department of Finance Canada. November 14, 2005. RetrievedMay 22, 2006.
  205. Jump up^ “The most educated countries in the world”. NBC. 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2013.
  206. Jump up^ “Comparing countries’ and economies’ performances”. OECD. 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2012.
  207. Jump up^ “Canadian education among best in the world: OECD”. CTV News. December 7, 2010. Retrieved February 15,2013.
  208. Jump up^ “Official Languages and You”Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. June 16, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
  209. Jump up to:a b “2006 Census: The Evolving Linguistic Portrait, 2006 Census: Highlights”Statistics Canada, Dated 2006. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
  210. Jump up^ “Population by knowledge of official language, by province and territory”. Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  211. Jump up^ Bourhis, Richard Y; Montaruli, Elisa; Amiot, Catherine E (May 2007). “Language planning and French-English bilingual communication: Montreal field studies from 1977 to 1997”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 2007 (185): 187–224.doi:10.1515/IJSL.2007.031.
  212. Jump up^ Lachapelle, R (March 2009). “The Diversity of the Canadian Francophonie”. Statistics Canada. RetrievedSeptember 24, 2009.
  213. Jump up^ Hayday, Matthew (2005). Bilingual Today, United Tomorrow: Official Languages in Education and Canadian FederalismMcGill-Queen’s University Press. p. 49.ISBN 978-0-7735-2960-1.
  214. Jump up^ Heller, Monica (2003). Crosswords: language, education and ethnicity in French OntarioMouton de Gruyter. pp. 72, 74. ISBN 978-3-11-017687-2.
  215. Jump up^ “Aboriginal languages”. Statistics Canada. RetrievedOctober 5, 2009.
  216. Jump up^ Olive Patricia Dickason (1992). Canada’s First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-8061-2439-1.
  217. Jump up^ Fettes, Mark; Norton, Ruth (2001). “Voices of Winter: Aboriginal Languages and Public Policy in Canada”. In Castellano, Marlene Brant; Davis, Lynne; Lahache, Louise.Aboriginal education: fulfilling the promiseUBC Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7748-0783-8.
  218. Jump up^ Russell, Peter H (2005). “Indigenous Self-Determination: Is Canada as Good as it Gets?”. In Hocking, Barbara.Unfinished constitutional business?: rethinking indigenous self-determinationAboriginal Studies Press. p. 180.ISBN 978-0-85575-466-2.
  219. Jump up^ “What Languages Do Canadians Speak? Language Statistics From the 2011 Census of Canada”. Canada Online. October 31, 2012. RetrievedNovember 26, 2012.
  220. Jump up^ “Population by mother tongue, by province and territory”. Statistics Canada. January 2013. RetrievedJuly 4, 2013.
  221. Jump up^ Rand Dyck (2011). Canadian Politics. Cengage Learning. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-17-650343-7.
  222. Jump up^ Franklin, Daniel P; Baun, Michael J (1995). Political culture and constitutionalism: a comparative approach. Sharpe. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-56324-416-2.
  223. Jump up^ Garcea, Joseph; Kirova, Anna; Wong, Lloyd (January 2009). “Multiculturalism Discourses in Canada”. Canadian Ethnic Studies 40 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1353/ces.0.0069.
  224. Jump up^ Bricker, Darrell; Wright, John (2005). What Canadians think about almost everything. Doubleday Canada. pp. 8–28. ISBN 978-0-385-65985-7.
  225. Jump up^ Magocsi, Paul R (2002). Aboriginal peoples of Canada: a short introduction. University of Toronto Press. pp. 3–6.ISBN 978-0-8020-3630-8.
  226. Jump up^ Blackwell, John D (2005). “Culture High and Low”. International Council for Canadian Studies World Wide Web Service. Retrieved March 15, 2006.
  227. Jump up^ “Mandate of the National Film Board”. National Film Board of Canada. 2005. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
  228. Jump up^ Brock, Richard (2008). “Envoicing Silent Objects: Art and Literature at the Site of the Canadian Landscape”.Canadian Journal of Environmental Education 13 (2): 50–61.
  229. Jump up^ Hill, Charles C (1995). The Group of Seven – Art for a Nation. National Gallery of Canada. pp. 15–21, 195.ISBN 978-0-7710-6716-7.
  230. Jump up^ Newlands, Anne (1996). Emily Carr. Firefly Books. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-55209-046-6.
  231. Jump up^ Pamela R. Stern (June 30, 2010). Daily life of the Inuit. ABC-CLIO. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-313-36311-5.
  232. Jump up^ Dorland, Michael (1996). The cultural industries in Canada: problems, policies and prospects. J. Lorimer. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-55028-494-2.
  233. Jump up^ Edwardson, Ryan (2008). Canadian content, culture and the quest for nationhood. University of Toronto Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-8020-9759-0.
  234. Jump up^ Adam Jortner (2011). The Gods of Prophetstown: The Battle of Tippecanoe and the Holy War for the American Frontier. Oxford University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-19-976529-4.
  235. Jump up^ “‘O Canada'”. Historica-Dominion. RetrievedNovember 27, 2013.
  236. Jump up^ “Hymne national du Canada”. Canadian Heritage. June 23, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
  237. Jump up^ Henry Roxborough, “The Beginning of Organized Sport in Canada,” Canada (1975) 2#3 pp 30–43
  238. Jump up^ “National Sports of Canada Act”. Canadian Heritage. November 17, 2008. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
  239. Jump up^ Conference Board of Canada (December 2004). “Survey: Most Popular Sports, by Type of Participation, Adult Population”Strengthening Canada: The Socio-economic Benefits of Sport Participation in Canada – Report August 2005. Sport Canada. Retrieved July 1, 2006.
  240. Jump up^ “Vancouver 2010”. The Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
  241. Jump up to:a b Canadian Heritage (2002). Symbols of Canada. Canadian Government Publishing. ISBN 978-0-660-18615-3.
  242. Jump up^ Ruhl, Jeffrey (January 2008). “Inukshuk Rising”.Canadian Journal of Globalization 1 (1): 25–30.

Further reading

Main article: Bibliography of Canada
Geography and climate
  • Stanford, Quentin H, ed. (2008). Canadian Oxford World Atlas(6th ed.). Oxford University Press (Canada). ISBN 978-0-19-542928-2.
Government and law
Demography and statistics

External links


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